Healthy gums are pale pink in color, feel smooth and follow a scalloped pattern. They have a firm texture and they do not bleed when they are brushed or touched. If your gums bleed during brushing, then it means that you have a gingival disease.
Healthy gums do not bleed
Gingival diseases (periodontal diseases) are diseases that affect the surrounding and supporting tissues of the teeth.
The supporting tissues around the tooth are the the gingiva, the root, the alveolar process and the ligaments connecting tooth root to the alveolar bone. This structure is named as "periodontium" meaning the "environment of the tooth".
Periodontal diseases are the most frequently encountered chronic diseases which influence one or more teeth in children, adolescents and especially in adults over 35 years and elderly people. Teeth with no caries can also be affected by these diseases and are lost.
As they usually proceed without any pain, they can’t be easily diagnosed and the dentist is not consulted early. Therefore gingival diseases are the most common cause of tooth loss.
When only the gums are affected by the infection, it is called ‘gingivitis’. The symptoms of gingivitis are bleeding, swelling and soft consistency. Bleeding is the first and the most important sign of gingivitis.
In gingivitis, redness and a tendency toward bleeding is apparent
Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal diseases. Its most important cause is the dental plaque and calculus (tartar). It is noticed with swelling, redness, brightness and either a spontaneous bleeding or a bleeding during brushing. During this stage there is no or very slight pain.
Gingivitis can be totally cured with a dental treatment and good oral hygiene. If gingivitis is not treated properly, it leads to periodontitis.
First the fibers which connect the gums to the tooth, then the ones connecting the dental root to the alveolar bone are destroyed forming gaps between the gums and the teeth which are called ‘pockets’. Within these pockets more bacteria, bacterial toxins and food rests contaminate and the infection penetrates to deeper tissues causing destruction in the bone and the final stage is the loss of teeth.
In periodontitis the condition aggravates
The symptoms of periodontitis are; bleeding, red/bluish-purplish color change, gingival recession, gingival hyperplasia, migration of teeth, spaces between teeth, elongation, loosening, abscess formation, sensitivity and bad breath.
The pain is usually seen with the abscess formation. Ultimately infection, esthetic deterioration and mastication deficiencies are observed along with a weak and unhealthy infrastructure that is not sufficient to support prosthesis.
In chronic periodontitis the teeth seem to be elongated due to gingival recession and bone loss
The most frequently encountered type of periodontitis is the chronic one. It is present in most of the adults. It proceeds very slowly, its symptoms are hardly noticed even at a late stage or they are not taken into consideration presuming that everything is normal. Therefore sometimes it is too late for treatment.
The destruction and infection of the surrounding tissue is apparent. Respectively the gums, the fibers connecting the gums to the tooth, then the fibers connecting the dental root to the alveolar bone and and the alveolar bone are destroyed.
The radiographs of the extensive bone loss in lower and upper molar area
With the bone loss taking place in periodontitis, the portion of the root within the alveolar one also decreases. During the next stage the teeth become loose and are lost.
THE PROGRESS OF GINGIVAL DISEASES
1. stage - Gingivitis
2. stage - Early Stage Periodontitis
3. stage - Middle Stage Periodontitis
4. stage - Advanced Stage Periodontitis
5. stage - Teeth Loss
Although there are various causes of gingival diseases ranging from genetic factors to hormonal structure, the most apparent and significant one is the insufficiency of care for teeth and gingiva. The initial and most important way of protecting yourself from gingival diseases is an accurate, regular and efficient mouth, teeth and gingival care. The first step of this care is correct brushing. Of course it is important how often you brush your teeth, but the point is how effective you brush them and your gingiva.
The information contained in the site is to inform about dentistry and treatment methods.
This information is definitely not a substitute for the physician to examine the patient for medical purposes or to make a diagnosis.